Tag Archives: Rowland Hill Fund

The Rowland Hill Fund

The following blog was written for us by Mary Jeffery, Manager of the Rowland Hill Fund.

The Rowland Hill Fund is a registered charity founded in 1882 as a memorial to the great postal reformer and founder of the modern postal service Sir Rowland Hill, who retired as Secretary to the Post Office in 1864.

Portrait of Sir Rowland Hill

Sir Rowland Hill

Rowland Hill adapted the postal system of the 1830s from one which was slow and inadequate to the introduction of using an adhesive stamp on the letter sheets, and the Penny Black was born. This system meant letters were cheaper to send and Rowland Hill succeeded in making the postal system more efficient and profitable.

Rowland Hill died in Hampstead, London in 1879 and in 1882 the Post Office created the Rowland Hill Fund in his memory for postal workers, pensioners and their dependants in times of need.

In its early days before the existence of the Welfare State organisations such as ours were often the only place that individuals could turn to when in financial distress. Although welfare provision is now an accepted part of society there is nonetheless a need to provide financial support, and the Rowland Hill Fund is still a vibrant concern.

Over the years the Fund has helped thousands of individuals and made grants totalling many hundreds of thousands of pounds. Last year the Fund dealt with 369 new cases distributing close to £250,000 in grant aid to current and retired colleagues, and made more than 50 grants of £1,000 or over.

The support we offer is varied; help with budgeting, respite breaks, home modifications for the disabled, mobility vehicles or an unexpected crisis. The diverse nature of the help provided indicates that there is an ongoing need for the financial support and practical advice we are able to offer. There is a free confidential Helpline available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, HELP 0800 688 8777. Here are examples where the Fund has helped.

“A serving colleague’s ground floor belongings were destroyed in the recent floods. She had to move upstairs until the substantial repairs on the ground floor had been completed and needed a temporary electricity supply and a washing machine. We contributed £500 as an emergency payment.”

“For several years a retired colleague had difficulty of movement, and with the help of his wife had managed to continue leading a fairly full life. As she was getting older, she was no longer able to lift him. The Fund helped towards the installation of a stair lift and bath hoist.”

“A couple are travelling daily to visit their son in hospital. Their son was born with a number of heath problems and has been in hospital since birth and will remain there for several more months. They had paid out £720 in travelling expenses and the Fund reimbursed them and will continue to pay their travel costs until their son leaves hospital.”

“A family house had hardly any heating and there was no hot water available except from kettles. Their two young children were particularly affected during the cold weather and had to be shipped off to their grandmothers to stay until the weather improved. The Fund contributed towards the cost of a replacement gas boiler.”

Often people are suffering hardship through no fault of their own and we are here to provide assistance when it is most needed, and in these changing times we want people to know that there is somewhere they can turn to for support. If you know of a Royal Mail Group colleague or pensioner who may be in need of financial or practical support, do let them know about the Fund.

Please support your charity and give what you can to help those who need it the most. For more information, ways to contribute and eligibility criteria, visit our website www.rowlandhillfund.org

Rowland Hill’s Postal Reforms

If there is one man who can be said to have changed the face of the postal service forever it is Rowland Hill. Hill was a noted reformer in the Victorian era, pioneering pupil-focused mass education and working for the South Australian Colonisation Commission, but he also had an interest in the postal service. In 1837 he published and circulated the pamphlet Post Office Reform: Its Importance and Practicability. During the 1830’s there were growing calls for postal reform and Hill’s pamphlet proved influential, ultimately leading to the introduction of the world’s first postage stamp, the Penny Black, in 1840.

A cross-written letter

A cross-written letter

Prior to 1840 the postal system was expensive, confusing and seen as corrupt. Letters were paid for by the recipient rather than the sender, and were charged according to the distance the letter had travelled and the number of sheets of paper it contained. As a result cross-writing, the practice of writing in different directions, was a common method of saving paper and money, and envelopes were rarely used.

For ordinary people the cost of receiving a letter was a significant part of the weekly wage. If you lived in London and your relatives had written to you from Edinburgh you would have to pay one shilling and one pence per page – more than the average worker earned in a day. Many letters were never delivered because their recipients could not afford them, losing the Post Office a great deal of money.

But while ordinary people scrimped and saved to use the postal system, many items, such as newspapers, were not subject to charge, and Members of both the House of Commons and the House of Lords had the right to frank and receive letters for free. Well-connected individuals could thus ask their MP to frank their mail for them, further reducing Post Office revenue.

After the Napoleonic Wars postage rates were high – a sly method of taxation – and there were many other anomalies and a number of local services with different charges. The system was ripe for reform.

Rowland Hill

Rowland Hill

Rowland Hill’s solution was prepayment, and a uniform rate of one pence for all letters weighing up to one ounce. Hill made no mention of the method of prepayment but later proposed the use of stamped covers (an idea previously suggested by Charles Knight). At an official inquiry into the Post Office, Hill outlined his ideas further and suggested that “a bit of paper just large enough to bear the stamp, and covered at the back with a glutinous wash” be used. When the inquiry reported it recommended Hill’s plan to reduce postal charges and appended samples of stamped covers to the report.

The establishment of a parliamentary Select Committee chaired by fellow postal reform campaigner Robert Wallace followed, and at the same time a Mercantile Committee on postage was set up by merchants to campaign for lower postal rates. Rowland Hill was a member of the Mercantile Committee.

The Select Committee recommended Hill’s ideas in early 1839, but favoured a uniform rate of 2d. After public pressure was put on the Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, the uniform rate was reduced to 1d, and on 15th August 1839 a bill was passed in favour of a universal penny post. The same bill abolished free franking and introduced prepayment in the form of stamped paper, stamped envelopes and labels.

Penny Black and Twopence Blue

Penny Black and Twopence Blue

Rowland Hill was appointed to the Treasury to oversee the implementation of the bill and the uniform penny post was introduced on 10th January 1840. Covers, envelopes and the world’s first adhesive stamps, the Penny Black and Twopence Blue, were introduced in May 1840. The stamps quickly proved themselves to be most popular method of prepayment.

Rowland Hill’s idea for a universal penny post was quickly vindicated. The number of chargeable letters in 1839 had been only about 76 million. By 1850 this had increased to almost 350 million and continued to grow dramatically. The Post Office’s revenue was initially cut but with the increase in the number of letters it soon recovered.

Adhesive postage stamps were gradually introduced throughout the world and with the change to charging by weight, envelopes became normal for the first time. Hill’s brother Edwin invented a prototype envelope folding machine, enabling increased production to fulfil the growing demand.

The rapid increase in the use of the postal service is also partly credited with the development of the transport system, particularly the railways, and improved opportunities for businesses in the Victorian era and beyond. The lower charges also had wide social benefits and the increasingly literate working classes took full advantage of the now affordable postal system.

Death Centenary of Rowland Hill stamp, 1979

Death Centenary of Rowland Hill stamp, 1979

Rowland Hill continued to influence the Post Office, becoming Secretary to the Postmaster General in 1846 and Secretary to the Post Office in 1854. During this period Hill established the Post Office Savings Bank, which encouraged more people to save, and introduced postcodes to London – essential in a city made up of lots of little villages all growing into each other, where streets in different parts of the city often had the same name.

Fittingly, Rowland Hill and his reforms have been celebrated on several postage stamps, including four stamps released to mark his death centenary in 1979, and the 1995 Communications stamps which commemorate the campaign for a universal penny post and the introduction of the Penny Black. Rowland Hill has also been honoured by three public statues and is buried in Westminster Abbey, a mark of how important his work was. There is also an awards scheme named after Hill for innovation, initiative and enterprise in the field of philately, and the Rowland Hill Fund, established in 1882, offers financial aid to past and present Royal Mail workers in times of need.

Pioneers of Communication: Rowland Hill stamps, 1995

Pioneers of Communication: Rowland Hill stamps, 1995

For more on postal history during the Victorian era please see our online exhibition Victorian Innovation.